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The Community 
Resource Kit 

Guidance for people setting up and 
running community organisations 

Te Tari Taiwhenua 

Section 4 



Section 1 

Getting started 

Section 2 


Section 3 

Organisational structures 

Section 4 


Section 5 


Section 6 


Section 7 

Financial management 

Section 8 


Section 9 

Raising funds 

Section 10: Employment 

Section 1 1 : Communications 

Section 12: Information technology 


1 Introduction 

Words used 

2 Governance and management 

Effective governance 

Difference between governance and management 

Governing body/management relations 

Extra dimensions to governing Maori organisations 

4 Roles and functions of a governing body 

Core roles 
Core functions 

Setting strategic direction and strategies 

Stakeholder relations 

Recruiting and evaluating the chief executive 

Being accountable to stakeholders 

Risk management 

Policy development 

Governing body officers 

Who are they? 

Powers, duties and liabilities 

General powers and duties 
General liabilities 
Specific duties of a chairperson 
Specific duties of a treasurer 
Specific duties of a secretary 


Managing governing body meetings 

Focusing on important strategic matters 


Special agenda items 

Information provided by the chief executive 


12 Governing body processes 



Process for appointment 

Retention checklist 

Induction checklist 
Succession planning 

Succession planning checklist 

Self-evaluation checklist 

15 Where to go for more information 

Online resources 
Other resources 


Governance is about how an organisation is run. It covers all the strategies, systems, 
processes and controls that enable a group to decide what it will do and to make sure it 
happens. Good governance is crucial for a community organisation because it enables the 
group to steer towards its goals (the word itself comes from the Latin gubernare - to steer) 
while making sure it is managed on day-to-day basis with these objectives in mind. 

When community groups are small and members work on a voluntary basis, it's common 
for the same people to be involved in both leading and running the group. However, as an 
organisation grows, it might start to look at getting public funding or employing people. 
When this happens, the group will become accountable to certain stakeholders, e.g. 
funders, and it is important to have some separation between the leadership (governance) 
and the operational (or management) roles in the group. 

Just as each community group is different, how it is governed will vary from group to group. 
There is no one perfect organisational solution. A group's governing body (its board or 
committee) should design an approach to governance that suits the organisation while 
being aware that there are some core roles and functions of governance that are common 
to all community organisations. 

This section looks at these core roles and functions, and also covers: 

• the difference between governance and management responsibilities 
the roles of office holders - treasurer, secretary, chairperson 

• the extra dimensions to Maori governance 

governing body recruitment, retention, orientation, succession planning and evaluation. 

Words used 

Throughout this section the term 'governing body' is used, which is meant to include: 

a board - a formal structure such as a board of directors (in the case of a company) 

• a committee or management committee - an informal structure such as the committee 
members of a society 

trustees - in the case of a charitable trust. 

The word 'member' is also used occasionally to refer to the individuals that make up a 
governing body. 

Tip: For an overview of governance and governance terms, visit Te Puni Kokiri's Effective 
Governance website - 

Community Resource Kit 

Section 4: Governance 1 

Governance and management 

Effective governance 

At its core, governance is about leadership. Effective governance ensures that the 
organisation remains viable and thrives, improving its results (both social and financial) and 
making sure its assets are protected and funds are used appropriately. On the other hand, 
poor governance can put organisations at risk of commercial failure, financial and legal 
problems for directors/trustees, or may allow an organisation to lose sight of its purpose 
and its responsibilities to members and the people who benefit from its success. 

Effectively functioning governing bodies have: 

a good mix of skills 

an effective chairperson 
committees for specialist tasks 
• well-managed meetings 
dynamics that allow free expression of different perspectives - an effective chairperson, 
backed by a strong vision for the organisation and clear protocols, can make sure all 
perspectives are taken into account 

outside specialist help on some issues - this is necessary if you cannot use the 
organisation's staff e.g. in the case of highly sensitive matters 
good self-evaluation 

Note that these points are dealt with in more detail later in this section. 

Difference between governance and management 

Studies of successful organisations show that effective governing bodies understand 
the difference between governance and management. In smaller community organisations 
it can be a challenge to separate issues of strategic governance from day-to-day 
management because there might not be many staff or members, so people perform 
multiple roles. However, as an organisation develops and grows, the distinction becomes 
increasingly important. 

In basic terms, governance is the role of leading an organisation and management is its 
day-to-day running or operating. Governance is the job of the governing body, such as a 
committee or board, to provide direction, leadership and control. Management is typically 
the job of a management or executive team, led by a co-ordinator or chief executive and 
his/her staff and volunteers. The governing body's role is to oversee management, not to 
manage. It must be satisfied that the management team is doing its job in accordance with 
policy and resources. 

Tip: Both the governing body and management need to be clear about their respective 
roles. A good rule of thumb is to always consider matters before the governing body in 
terms of the strategic plan and always leave the job of actually carrying out the strategic 
plan to the management team. For a definition of the roles of committee and co-ordinator 
in smaller community organisations, see: 

Community Resource Kit 

Section 4: Governance 2 

Governing body/management relations 

A sound relationship between the governing body and management is central to a good 
working relationship and ultimately to an organisation's success. Having only one direct 
employee - usually the chief executive or, in smaller organisations, the co-ordinator - will 
mean one person is in charge and accountable to the board. The chief executive should be 
delegated maximum authority to manage all operational matters, should employ all other 
staff and be responsible for the work of the staff, be they paid or unpaid volunteers. 

An effective and productive governing body/chief executive relationship is built on: 

mutual respect for their separate but interdependent roles and responsibilities 
a clear definition of the results to be achieved 
clearly defined and documented delegation and authority 
• mutual agreement about the boundaries of freedom granted to the chief executive to carry 
out his/her role and tasks 

a fair, ethical and transparent process for evaluating the chief executive's performance 
open and regular communication 

an ability to engage in robust debate and a mutual willingness to challenge and to offer and 
receive constructive criticism. 

Extra dimensions to governing Maori organisations 

Maori organisations often have particular characteristics that must be taken into account in 
the practice of governance. 

These may include: 

Multiple purposes - many Maori organisations have to balance multiple purposes e.g. 

financial viability and social and cultural aspirations. 

The importance of tikanga and values -tikanga principles are often put into practice in 

the governing body of a Maori organisation alongside general governance principles. Many 

are explicitly driven by tikanga, kawa and values e.g. tangihanga and cultural leave policies. 

Cultural considerations will sometimes take precedence over purely economic factors. Maori 

organisations may also have a Maori dimension in their procedures e.g. the use of te reo 

Maori, mihi, karakia, koha, manaakitanga, whanaungatanga, regular consultation hui, etc. 

Long-term view - many Maori organisations have a long-term view of their future e.g. in 

strategic planning, a 25-year view or longer may be taken. 

Appointment of governing members - rather than being a skill-based selection, governing 

body appointments in Maori organisations may be influenced by other factors, such as 

whakapapa, tikanga (e.g. appointing a rangatira or respected elder), whanaungatanga (e.g. 

appointing a relative). 

Governing body dynamics - the dynamics around the governing body table of a Maori 

organisation can be influenced by factors such as the importance of tikanga and values, a 

long-term view, use of Maori terms, etc. 

Involving owners in decision-making - governing bodies of Maori organisations may be 

required to undertake a higher level of consultation. 

Te Tiriti o Waitangi - many Maori organisations refer to the Treaty of Waitangi in their 

mission/vision statements and core legal documents. 

Use of Maori terms - the use of te reo Maori (e.g. constitutions in te reo) can lead to 

difficulties in interpretation. Clear definitions/translations may be required to overcome this. 

Community Resource Kit Section 4: Governance 3 

Tip: For more information on the extra dimensions of governing Maori organisations, 
visit Te Puni Kokiri's Effective Governance website: 

The website also has 30 case studies of Maori organisations that have shared their 
knowledge and experience of governance. Visit: 
share/casestudies.aspx . 

Roles and functions of a governing body 

While the model of governance may vary for each group, there are common core roles and 
functions of governance that need to be considered by every group. 

Core roles 

The core roles of a governing body include: 

guardian of group values - making sure the organisation's members are aware of the values, 

mission and priorities, and that these are not undermined 

facilitator - fostering relationships with key stakeholders 

political advocate - keeping in touch with local and central bodies, including politicians and 


buffer - monitoring and responding to any potential differences of opinion or causes of 

conflict e.g. between Government and organisational interests. 

Core functions 

The core functions of a governing body include: 

setting and monitoring the organisation's mission, purpose, direction, priorities and 

strategies within the boundaries of its constitution and legal obligations 

regularly scanning the environment in which the organisation operates to ensure that what 

it's attempting to achieve remains relevant and achievable 

specifying key outcomes and ensuring there are adequate resources - people and finances 

- to achieve these 

• monitoring the organisation's programmes and services 

actively involving key stakeholders in setting and monitoring the organisation's mission, etc, 

maintaining positive relationships with them and developing policies that best serve their 


appointing and supporting the chief executive, evaluating his/her performance and 

rewarding or replacing him/her as necessary 

being accountable to the organisation's funders and/or owners 

• risk management 

ensuring the governing body complies with all legal requirements and with the governing 

body's own policies 

influencing decisions and finances 

reporting, at least annually, to stakeholders 

setting standards for and evaluating its own governance performance 

maintaining a governing body succession plan. 

Community Resource Kit 

Section 4: Governance 4 

Tip: For further details on these core functions, see Getting on Board, available from: , and Nine Steps to Effective Governance, from: http:// . 

Setting strategic direction and strategies 

A governing body's most important role is setting the long-term direction for the 
organisation, i.e. its mission and vision. The mission of the organisation relates to why it 
exists, while the vision relates to the long-term view of where the organisation sees itself in 
the future and what it wants to achieve. 

Once the governing body has set the mission and vision for the organisation, it will work 
together with management and other stakeholders on strategic planning - planning the 
strategies that will take the organisation towards that vision. Strategic plans are long-range, 
at least five years, and cover things like financials, staffing, marketing, communications, etc. 

Tip: More complete information on strategic planning can be found in Section 2 - 

Stakeholder relations 

Stakeholders are people - both inside and outside an organisation - who have an interest 
in the organisation, e.g. customers, employees, board members, shareholders, public. As 
part of good governance, all stakeholders should be consulted so their expectations and 
requirements can be identified. Stakeholders shouldn't necessarily determine the group's 
overall strategy or drive the governing body's decision-making, but they should be involved 
when the group plans its direction and priorities. 

Recruiting and evaluating the chief executive 

The governing body is responsible for appointing the chief executive and monitoring his/her 
performance against agreed targets and indicators. The qualities and skills the governing 
body should look for will vary from group to group depending on its circumstances 
and strategic direction. For example, some people will be better at starting up a new 
organisation and others at working with one that wants to expand its services. 

The keys to getting and retaining the right person as chief executive are: 

defining the attributes you want for the position 
considering a range of people 
carefully reference-checking the preferred candidates 

getting the full governing body to meet the leading candidates and make the final decision 
• providing the successful person with a clear job description and proper formal 
induction process. 

Community Resource Kit 

Section 4: Governance 5 

Performance evaluation 

The governing body should adopt a process whereby all the members are involved in the 
chief executive's evaluation. Good performance evaluation should: 

involve evaluation only against previously-agreed performance criteria and only covering 
matters the chief executive has been given full operational authority over 
be continuous - regular, informal feedback is most effective and should be positive as 
well as identifying concerns. Regular reports to the board also provide an opportunity for 
performance evaluation. 
• involve additional, more formal 'wrap ups' every three to four months. This also provides a 
chance to reset expectations if necessary 
include feedback from staff. 

Tip: For further information on recruiting and evaluating the chief executive's 
performance, see Getting on Board available from: 

Being accountable to stakeholders 

Accountability means explaining to someone what you have done and are doing. Depending 
on an organisation's size and purpose, the governing body will be accountable to a number 
of stakeholders for a variety of items and actions, and will be held accountable via these 
main avenues: 

• the annual general meeting (AGM) 

• the annual report 

• reports to funders - reporting that any money provided was used as agreed, and 
how it was used 

• other open meetings or consultations. 

Communication with all stakeholders (e.g. iwi, local community, government regulators, etc) 
is important. They need a clear and accurate view of where your organisation is going, how 
it's performing and reassurance that the governing body is operating in the best interest 
of the organisation and meeting their legal obligations. As a minimum, the governing body 
should allow time at the AGM to give all stakeholders the opportunity to ask questions. It 
may also be beneficial to develop communications plans to ensure ongoing communication 
with stakeholders (see Section 1 1 - Communications). 

Risk management 

Risk management involves the governing body identifying any obstacles, events or changes 
that might prevent the organisation from reaching its goals and making sure strategies are in 
place that will minimise or eliminate any negative impacts. All risk management begins with 
three simple questions: 

1 . What might go wrong? 

2. What can we do to prevent it? 

3. What will we do if it happens? 

Community Resource Kit 

Section 4: Governance 6 

A governing body should begin developing its risk management strategies by answering 
these questions, building up a set of written policies that will help the organisation: 

protect itself from legal liability 

better manage and maintain its assets (and possibly lower its insurance premiums) 

improve its stakeholders' perception of the group 

make better informed decisions 

There is a wide range of risk management strategies that a governing body might need to 
consider, such as reports on incidents in the workplace, good-practice rules, and ongoing 
staff and governing body training. A governing body should pay particular attention to 
risk management around financial matters and legal compliance. Risk needs to be taken 
seriously even if the chances of something going wrong appear slim, so it's a good idea 
to appoint a member of the organisation as risk manager or set up a risk management 

Tip: For more information on risk management, see CommunityNet Aotearoa's 
Risk Management How-to Guide: 

Policy development 

Policies are the guiding principles by which an organisation is run. They are the official 
statements that put into writing the way things are to be done within the group. It's the 
governing body's responsibility to develop their governance policies, to ensure they are 
being carried out, and to review them regularly so that they remain appropriate for the 

There are a number of policies an organisation should consider having. Which of them you 
need will depend on your organisation's objectives, needs and resources, but generally, the 
policies fall under these main categories: 

governance and management -e.g. governing body/chief executive relationship, financial 

management, risk management and planning policies 

advocacy and representation - e.g. communications, relationships and Treaty of 

Waitangi policies 

human resources - e.g. volunteer, recruitment/induction, Equal Employment Opportunities 

and occupational safety and health policies 

operations and administration - e.g. information management, record-keeping, grants 

and sponsorship, Internet usage and vehicle policies. 

Tip: For more information on policies, refer to Section 5 - Policies. For some sample board 
policies see CommunityNet Aotearoa's Governance and Management How to Guide at: . 

Community Resource Kit 

Section 4: Governance 7 

Governing body officers 

Who are they? 

There are usually three officers (also called office holders or office bearers) within an 
organisation's governing body who will have additional, specific roles over and above their 
general roles. They are a: 

chairperson (sometimes known as chair or convenor) - in charge of leading the board or 

committee and representing the organisation 

treasurer- in charge of keeping the organisation's finances healthy 

secretary - in charge of administration. 

The specific duties of a chairperson, treasurer and secretary are dealt with later. 

Powers, duties and liabilities 
General powers and duties 

An organisation's constitution should set out the functions, duties and powers of each of 
the officers. In addition to their specific duties, all three officers have a general duty to: 

act in good faith and in the organisation's best interests 
take reasonable care in exercising their duties. 

General liabilities 

Apart from the usual potential liability of an officer committing any crime, e.g. theft, officers 
may also be personally liable if they act outside the organisation's rules and objects, such as 
breaches of trust or failure to perform their fiduciary duty (acting in the best interests of the 
assets they are in charge of). 

An officer can also be exposed to potential financial penalties if the organisation's affairs 
are conducted in breach of its governing Act. For example, each officer of an incorporated 
society can be fined up to $1 ,000 for failing to deliver any document requested by the 
Registrar of Incorporated Societies for inspection. 

Specific duties of a chairperson 

The role of the chairperson (also called the 'chair', 'chairman' or 'convenor') is a 
crucial one. In addition to his/her general governing body duties, the chairperson, together 
with the chief executive, represents the organisation to its various stakeholders, the 
financial community and the general public. Essentially, the chair is the key link between the 
governing body and management. 

Community Resource Kit Section 4: Governance 8 

The main responsibilities of a governing body chairperson are to: 

lead strategic planning 
manage relationships 

• ensure risks to the organisation are managed 
monitor the chief executive's performance 

ensure that all governing body members can contribute to debate and decision-making 
manage governing body processes. 

More specifically, the chairperson is expected to: 

• conduct efficient governing body meetings (see the following information on Managing 
governing body meetings) 

- set annual meeting timetables 
prepare meeting agendas 

manage the distribution of papers in advance of governing body meetings 
ensure accurate recording of meeting decisions 

liaise with the chief executive outside scheduled governing body meetings 
establish governing body committees (sub-groups of the full board) for specific tasks and 
define their terms of reference 

instruct the auditor in the absence of a finance committee 
attend committee meetings where appropriate 
make sure the governing body's resources are being well and appropriately used. 

The process for appointing a chair varies according to the constitution of the organisation. 

Specific duties of a treasurer 

The treasurer oversees the financial administration of an organisation and reports to the 
governing body. He/she is responsible for the group's finances, making sure they are 
clearly accounted for and that all reporting requirements are met. This means ensuring the 
organisation is currently in a healthy financial state, and also assuring its ongoing viability. 

The treasurer's tasks may include: 

• ensuring that the finances of the organisation are managed appropriately 
making recommendations to the governing body about income and expenditure, 
investments and debts 

keeping records of all incoming and outgoing payments 

reviewing the annual statement of financial performance (profit and loss) and statement of 

financial position (balance sheet) 

• ensuring that the annual audit process is undertaken in a timely fashion according to legal 

providing regular financial statements to the governing body and providing explanations 
where required 

drawing up the annual budget in consultation with staff and other governing body members 
ensuring that sufficient funds are available at all times to support the organisation's liabilities. 

Community Resource Kit Section 4: Governance 9 

In small community organisations, the treasurer may be responsible for doing the banking, 
paying bills and tracking income and expenditure throughout the year. In larger community 
organisations many of these basic administrative duties will be done by staff, such as a 
financial administrator, but the treasurer will always have the final responsibility for ensuring 
that sufficient funds are available and the necessary processes for reporting are in place. 

Tip: For further details of the financial duties of the treasurer, see Section 7 - Financial 

Specific duties of a secretary 

A governing body will sometimes appoint a secretary to carry out certain administrative 
tasks in addition to his/her general responsibilities. 

These tasks can include: 

convening meetings and booking rooms 
• dealing with correspondence 
preparing agendas for meetings (in consultation with the chairperson) 
taking the minutes of meetings (although some governing bodies may want to appoint a 
minute-taker for this task) 
ensuring back-up information is available at meetings where required. 

Managing governing body meetings 

A governing body meeting should be stimulating and fun, as well as productive. There 
should be processes in place to avoid unnecessarily long meetings and to help focus the 
governing body on the important strategic matters. 

Focusing on important strategic matters 

A strong focus on important strategic matters can be helped by: 

effective meeting planning and strong meeting management 

appropriate, concise governing body papers 

good preparation by each governing body member 

an atmosphere that allows governing body members to ask probing questions, and 

proactive policy that prevents the governing body from needing to consider everything in an 

impromptu manner. 

Community Resource Kit 

Section 4: Governance 1 


Creating governing body agendas is not a task that should be delegated to the chief 
executive - the meeting is a governance not a management forum. The specifics of the 
agenda will vary from organisation to organisation, but there are three common categories 
under which agenda items will appear: 

Regular items - all meetings commence with the same formal matters: the confirmation of 
a quorum, recording of attendance and apologies, and the confirmation (or amendment and 
subsequent confirmation) of the minutes of the previous meeting. Other regular items likely 
to be included are financial matters compared with budget and the previous year. Such 
items should be presented in a logical and consistent order to allow for easy comparison 
with earlier reports and also allow the comparison of actual outcomes against forecasts. 
Legal matters - where the governing body has delegated authority it may wish to receive 
a report on the use of any such delegated power, including approval of major contracts 
between the organisation and third parties. 

Periodic items - these items may include, for example, reviewing strategic plans and 
setting management goals, approving annual budgets and non-financial performance 
indicators and annual targets, reviewing the environment, reporting progress to owners 
through annual financial accounts (or where appropriate six-monthly or quarterly) and risk 

Special agenda items 

Special governing body meetings may be needed, or special items may be added, to 
scheduled meetings which may then be extended. Special agenda items may arise out of 
key resignations or legislative change etc. 

Information provided by the chief executive 

The chief executive should provide timely reports on: 

achievement of, or progress towards, strategic goals 
changes in the operating environment 
• financial information, and 
the impact of the governing body's policies on its ability to do its job. 


If the meeting agenda is well set and papers well researched and presented with clear 
recommendations, they will act as a focus for the chairperson and a change of tense may 
be all that is required to convert the agenda into minutes. 

Tip: For further general information on running successful meetings, see 
Section 6 - Meetings. 

Community Resource Kit 

Section 4: Governance 1 1 

Governing body processes 


A governing body's success depends entirely on the people sitting around the table and 
how they contribute their skills and perspectives to discussion and debate. The right 
mix of people will ensure the governing body makes good decisions for the future of 
the organisation. A governing body needs to be made up of people who have the right 
experience and skills with their own vision of where the organisation is going and how it 
should get there. It shouldn't just be a collection of people who are friends of the staff and 
other members. 

Finding, recruiting and retaining governing members can be a big challenge for many 
not-for-profit organisations. However, research shows that the more time you spend on 
recruiting a governing body member, the better that person is likely to perform. 

Some tips for effective recruitment include: 

develop and implement a recruitment programme that includes a nomination, selection and 

orientation process 

always recruit in person and have a senior member of the existing governing body involved 

think about the skills the group needs and the groups of people who should be represented 

on the governing body 

always be on the look out for potential members. 

Tip: For some examples of board recruitment checklists, see CommunityNet Aotearoa's 
Governance & Management How-to Guide: 
toguides/governancemanagement/Templates/ . 


The size of the governing body depends on: 

• the size of the organisation 
the number of people who can be expected to work effectively together 
the mix of skills needed (e.g. business and financial skills, specialist skills such as social 
welfare, knowledge of tikanga and whakapapa, etc) and 

■ the legal, constitutional and representation requirements. 

Process for appointment 

Who can be appointed as a governing board member and the process for how they are 
appointed differs for various organisational structures depending on the organisation's 
governing Act and constitution. Every group should clearly define these things when it 
creates its founding documents. 

Community Resource Kit 

Section 4: Governance 12 


Retention checklist 

Once you have your governing body members in place, you must consider the following 
to make sure the organisation keeps these good people: 

clearly identify the roles and responsibilities of the members 
provide ongoing training and learning opportunities 
■ ensure meetings are pleasant, focused and constructive 
build trust, respect and communication, and 
have fun! 


All new governing body members should receive a formal induction into their governance 
role and the organisation's work as a whole. This is so that new members can contribute to 
the governing body's work as soon as possible. 

Induction checklist 

The induction for a governing body member can include: 

assigning new members to more experienced ones (mentors) 
staff presentations on the work of the organisation 

meetings with the chairperson (for a governance familiarisation) and with the chief 
executive/co-ordinator (for an operational familiarisation) 
• providing new members with a governing body manual. This manual may include: 

- governing body policies and procedures 

- members' job descriptions and responsibilities 

- the group's organisational plan, strategic plan and mission statement 

- current membership details 

- governing body meeting details (e.g. dates, times, venues, duties, expectations) and 

- audited accounts for the last few years. 

Tip: For some examples of board (governing body) induction/orientation checklists visit 
CommunityNet Aotearoa's Governance & Management How-to Guide: http://www. 

Community Resource Kit 

Section 4: Governance 13 

Succession planning 

Each governing body should develop a succession plan for selecting and replacing elected 
and appointed governing body members and office holders. 

Succession planning checklist 

Succession planning can be as simple as: 

reviewing the governing body's performance and composition 
• maintaining a 'needs matrix' and a current profile for each governing body position. A 
needs matrix is where existing governing body members are invited to comment on the 
skills, experience and attributes they feel the governing body needs as a whole, and 
maintaining a list of prospective members. 

Tip: For more information on board succession, visit Our Community: http://www. 


It's good governance practice to regularly assess the governing body's performance. A 
review should be done at least yearly, and can be led by an outside consultant or managed 
internally by the governing body through a structured discussion. These evaluations are 
an opportunity to check that the governing body is fully on track, and to see if there are 
opportunities for change that could give better results. 

Self-evaluation checklist 

The performance of a governing body will always differ from group to group, but some basic 
questions a governing body should ask itself during a self-evaluation are: 

• what is the state of relationships with stakeholders? 

how well is the strategic plan linking to the work within the organisation? 

• do we agree on what things we should be doing and whether we are doing them well? 
did we allocate appropriate time to the right things throughout the year? 

are all legal requirements being met? 

• are our staff and members satisfied? 

• are our meetings well run and the information we receive sufficient? 

• are our various committees working well and do they have the right relationship with the rest 
of the governing body? 

do the governing body members feel their skills are being used and their 

contribution valued? 

how is the chairperson performing in his/her role? 

• do we have a good relationship with the chief executive? 

Tip: For a sample governing body self-evaluation checklist, visit CommunityNet 
Aotearoa's Governance & Management How-to Guide: 

Community Resource Kit 

Section 4: Governance 14 

Where to go for more information 

Online resources 

1 . ComunityNet Aotearoa's Governance and Management How-to Guide (http:// . A guide to help 
organisations establish effective practices and policies to develop and maintain 
good governance. 

2. Effective Governance Te Puni Kdkiri - Ministry for Maori Development (http:// . A resource for directors and trustees of Maori organisations. 
Includes summaries, useful resources, case studies and templates. 

3. Not-for-profit Sector Governance, New Zealand Institute of Chartered Accountants 
(http://www. cfm?Section=Governance&Template=/CM/ 
HTMLDisplay.cfm&ContentlD=8470) . Information on the key elements of governance 
for not-for-profit organisations. 

4. Good Governance Guides, Chartered Secretaries New Zealand (http://www.csnz. 
org/Category?Action=View&Category_id=190) . Guides to corporate governance and 
governance issues. 

5. Good Practice Guidelines, Hutt City Council ( 
Services/Community-Development/Good-Practice-Guidelines/) . See Section 2: 
Good governance. 

6. Governance Templates, SPARC ( 
Developing-Capabilities/Governance-Templates/) . Templates for various governance 
and board processes. See also Club Kit ( 
and-clubs/Toolkit-for-Clubs/) . Running Your Club - Committees, Roles and Meetings. 

7. Boards, Management Committees and Governance (AUS), ACT Council of 
Social Services ( ) . Governance 
information and tools for community sector board or management committee members. 

8. Governance Issues (AUS), PilchConnect ( ) . 
Resources to assist community organisations with good governance practices. 

9. Boards, Committees & Governance Centre (AUS), Our Community (http://www. . Help for community groups and their 
board/committee members to build a better board and be a better board member. Also 
see Modern Governance and Community Groups ( 
management/ . 

1 0. Developing Your Board Wiki (AUS), Queensland University of Technology 
( . A collection of non-profit 
governance resources and developmental resources for boards and board members. 

1 1 . Tipu Ake: An Organic Leadership Model for Innovative Organisations (http://www. nz) . 

1 2. Free Complete Toolkit for Boards (US), Free Management Library (http:// . Covers all aspects of board operations 
and governance. 

Community Resource Kit Section 4: Governance 1 5 

13. ACT Council of Social Services: 
govemance/roletreasurer.html . 

14. SPARC'S Nine Steps to Effective Governance: 
partners/Developing-Capabilities/Publications/ . 

15. Getting on Board, Creative New Zealand: . 

Other resources 

1 . North Shore Community and Social Services' Community Resources - A 

Governance Tool Kit, Management or Governance - What is the Difference? The 
Treasurer's Resource Manual, Role of Chairperson, Role of Secretary, Evaluating 
Your Board's Performance, A Guide To: Successful Meetings, Simple Policy and 
Procedures Manual. Booklets available from: 
resources . 

2. Getting on Board: a governance resource guide for arts organisations, Creative 
New Zealand, available from: . A resource guide and tool 
kit on good governance practices. 

3. Nine Steps to Effective Governance, SPARC, available from: 
nz/en-nz/our-partners/Developing-Capabilities/Publications/ . A best-practice guide to 
quality governance. (See also the accompanying Resources publication). 

2. The New Work of the Non-profit Board, Harvard Business Review, available from: 
http://hbr.Org/1996/09/the-new-work-of-the-nonprofit-board/ar/1 . 

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